Gemstones have a long and occasionally checkered history.Since prehistoric times, precious gems have been used in barter, for decoration, and in rituals. The primary key to the value of gemstones lies in their beauty (Figure 1). For instance, a superb jade bangle, with an interior diameter of 49.50 mm and 8.36 mm thickness, sold in 1999 for$2,576,600 at Christie’s®. The obvious problem is that the character of a gemstone can be enhanced (or even produced ab initio) by non-natural methods. In cases where such enhancement is disclosed, this is not a “problem,”although the stone value is not as high as that of a totally natural example. Fraud is, however, a major concern.